Выбор места под строительство домаВыбор места под строительство дома. Выбор места под строительство дома. С незапамятных времен повелось выбирать место для строительства дома поближе к воде и лесу, да чтобы оно открыто было для ветра, удобно для земледелия, а также для таких занятий, как рыбная ловля и охота. Дом настолько органично вписывается в природу, что казался естественным ее порождением, одновременно растворяясь в ней и вырастая из нее. Стоит поучиться у наших прадедов мудрости в выборе места для каждого отдельного строения и искусству связывать его с природным окружением, в результате чего, порой, невозможно представить данную местность без светлой церквушки, «трудяги-ветряка», милой, теплой, уютной избы. Предпочтение при этом отдавалось живописным местам. Храмы, церквушки, часовенки располагались на самом видном и «красном» (красивом) месте: на возвышенностях, на крутых берегах рек и озер. Надо заметить, к земле во все времена относились бережно, с уважением и почтением. Prefab дома позволяют быть ближе к природе. На конструктивное решение порой влияли и особенности ландшафта, а место постройки должно было быть счастливым.

Поэтому избу старались поставить на том месте, куда обычно ложился отдыхать скот, или, скажем, жили муравьи. Ни в коем случае нельзя было строить дом на старой дороге или на том месте, где зверь дикий задрал домашнюю скотину. Люди старались не использовать для строительства дома места, где проходила дорога, ибо считалось в народе, что из дома может уйти достаток, здоровье, а за ним и жизнь. Неблагополучным для строительства являлось место, где ранее находилась баня, т. к. Банник (банный дух) был существом недоброжелательным и мог нанести много напастей как на дом, так и на членов семьи. Не годился для постройки жилища спорный участок, т. к. полагали, что в этом доме до конца жизни ладу не будет, пойдут ссоры, споры и другие житейские неполадки. Британцы построили эко-монастырь.

Дурным предзнаменованием считалось и то, если при строительстве в земле находили человеческие кости, оставшиеся без погребения. Недобрым считалось место, где ранее стоял дом и был сожжен молнией, либо оставлен из-за болезней, наводнений и других несчастий. Там, где однажды пал гнев Божий, думал человек, или случались несчастья, все могло повториться. Поскольку срок жизни деревенского жилища не так уж долог в силу воздействия на него солнца, ветра, перепадов температур, снега и дождя, грунтовых вод, человек пытался с помощью обрядов, магических знаков, действ уберечь его от преждевременного старения. Закладка дома совершалась в новолуние (на растущий месяц). Уже при закладке дома, при укладывании первого яруса, его ориентировали на 4 стороны света. В соответствии со сторонами света мыслились и четыре времени года: восток — весна, запад — осень, юг — лето, север — зима.

Строительство дома сопоставлялось с творением мира, отсюда, как мы говорили ранее, в центре дома хозяин вкапывал дерево, олицетворяющее центр, ось Мира, находящееся там вплоть до тер пор, когда начинали крыть крышу. В разных губерниях существовали свои правила закладки дома. Так, например, в Киевской, Минской, Могилевской, Полтавской губерниях после того, как было размечено место для будущего дома, выложен первый венец, выкопаны ямы для столбов, работы временно приостанавливали. Это связано было с тем, чтобы узнать, насколько счастливо это место. В выкопанные ямы сам хозяин высыпал рожь и клал на ночь по «целушке» хлеба и стакан с водой. Хорошим предзнаменованием считалось, если хлеб и вода к утру оставались нетронутыми. В Белоруссии при сооружении избы для сына хозяин должен был освятить вначале землю, т. е. место, где предполагалось строительство дома. С этой целью на земле вычерчивался квадрат размерами, приближенными к дому, затем делился на четыре части.

После этого уже хозяин будущей избы отправлялся «на все четыре стороны» и приносил по большому камню с четырех полей. По языческим верованиям бог Перун (гроза, дождевые облака, гром — молнии) посылал на землю молнии, которые превращались в камни. Эти камни считались священными. Таким образом, располагая камни в центре каждого квадрата, хозяин как бы освящал землю под строительство дома. Лучшая десятка «зеленых» небоскребов мира. У нас в Белгородской области при рубке новой избы клали на первый венец маленький крестик. А под первый сволок клали тоже крестик и на первую ночь ставили стакан с солью и клали буханку хлеба, дабы задобрить домового.

Мы думаем, что читателю интересно будет узнать о значении первого венца при укладке дома. Дело в том, что идея круга пронизывала буквально всю жизнь человека, начиная от рождения и до самой смерти. Она воплотилась и во все виды народного творчества (орнамент, одежду: горловина, рукава, низ подола, предметы быта, орудия труда и т. д.). Эта же идея заложена и в самом венце. При разметке будущего дома важным моментом считалось определение места очага и обозначение переднего (красного) угла.

У язычников постройка дома начиналась с освящения переднего угла с помощью обряда жертвоприношения петуха, символизирующего огонь и являющегося любимым божеством — хранителем очага — пенатом. Тонкий знаток древнерусской культуры А. Н. Афанасьев по этому поводу пишет: «. Надо было, чтоб охранительная сила. перешла в новоизбранное место, имела продолжение в его детях, внуках и т. д.». Смерть его предопределяла рождение и рождение смерть (по воззрениям древних славян), другими словами — своеобразное чередование одного явления с другим, имевшее место в пределах дома.

Такая бесконечная жизненная круговерть носила свое отражение в символике круга. Мы знаем из дошедших до нас источников, что человек старался также уберечь себя, свою семью, род от всего дурного, всякой нечисти с помощью знаков-оберегов. Идея круга в значении окружность воплотилась и в венец (форма круга) дома. Отсюда символическое значение четырехугольника, который получался в результате кладки бревен, связано с кругом в значении «огородить», окружить. Источник: Ботова С.И. Приставкина Т.А. Рябчиков А.В. Рукотворная краса земли Белгородской, Часть 1, Белгород, 2000г. Если у вас неправильно отображается страница, не воспроизводится видео или нашли ошибку в тексте, пожалуйста, нажмите сюда.

Выбор места под строительство дома: 26 комментариев

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